The 29-year-old, who missed the 2016 season due to his battle with skin cancer, will take over from Luke Hodge.
“I’m honoured to be captaining the Hawks this year,” Roughead said.
“It’s an enormous responsibility but I’m ready for the challenge and can’t wait to lead this group of players.
“I’ve been lucky enough to play under one of our game’s best captain’s in Hodgey and I’ll certainly take a lot of what he has taught me into the role.
“To be backed by the players and the club, it’s a really special feeling.”
Hodge, who has held the role since 2010, captaining the side for 125 games, said he feels the time is right for a new leader at the club.
“I think Rough is the right man to lead the club in 2017,” he said.
“It has been an honour and a privilege to captain the Hawthorn Football Club but I think it’s the perfect time for Rough to take the reins.
“I’ve had the opportunity to see him grow and develop as a leader and there is no better person to lead our club in 2017.
“I’ve always thought I’d like to be around to help out and support my successor so I’m rapt that Rough’s appointment means I’ll have the opportunity to do that.”